Meanwhile, JD.com will bring high-quality products to other parts of the world through Google Shopping. To return the favor, the retailer will allow results to appear in the Shopping section of Googles search engine.
JD.com's US -listed shares rose 0.4 percent to close at $43.76 on Nasdaq.
JD.com is second only to Alibaba in China's booming e-commerce market, offering a huge potential market for Google and its customers. Together, the two companies could challenge the dominance of Amazon and Alibaba in key markets around the world, analysts said.
Google declined to comment on the rumored Flipkart deal.
"The announcement isn't focused on China", JD.com spokesman Josh Gartner confirmed to AFP. Google is increasing its investments across Asia, including a rumored deal to invest in the Indian e-commerce company Flipkart. Google recently took a stake in Indonesian ride-hailing firm Go-Jek.
JD is up 5.76% this year.
Google joins JD.com's current investors, including Chinese social media giant Tencent and US.
The companies said the investment is a piece of a wider partnership, however, which includes the promotion of JD.com products on Google's shopping service.
Although Google is blocked in JD's homeland and main market, China, the partnership recognizes the technical prowess of the United States tech giant and hopes to merge it with JD's supply chain and logistics skills and scale.