Kim, world No. 67, was six strokes back of the fifth-ranked Jutanugarn, the overnight leader, to start the final round, and fell back by as many as seven strokes during the final day.
World No.5 Jutanugarn is seemingly in cruise control atop the leaderboard, picking up one shot to climb to 13 under through 11 holes and she is three strokes ahead of Hyo-Joo Kim at 10 under.
The two-hole play-off began at the 14th and Kim holed another long putt from the edge of the green for birdie, but she found a bunker at the 18th to drop a shot, while Jutanugarn sank a four-foot putt to take the Championship to sudden death. Jutanugarn, already a nine-time victor on the LPGA Tour and the 2016 British Open champion, appeared under no pressure whatsoever when beginning her final nine holes.
South Korean Kim Hyo-joo has come up short in what could have been a historic rally to win the oldest major on the LPGA Tour.
It was a long, sweaty day at Shoal Creek, especially for those who had to complete their second round on Saturday morning before playing the third. She blew a two-shot lead with three holes to go at the ANA Inspiration in 2016, bogeying the final three holes to lose to Lydia Ko.
Second round action will resume early tomorrow before the third round is also scheduled to take place. "So I tee off on 11, I told my caddie, 'I don't know how to hit this one, '" Jutanugarn said.
"I have to give myself more opportunities at birdie because I feel quite good about the putter", Park said.
Despite losing her big lead, Jutanugarn says she wasn't feeling nervous going to the two-hole playoff. On his third try, he hit his approach to 12 feet behind the hole and made it for birdie to beat Byeong Hun An and win for the second time on the PGA Tour. So it's nice to feel like I'm seeing the greens really well and seeing some putts go in.
Ariya, who has won eight LPGA events in the past two years, was far from ideal early on but kept her card clean with a 6-foot par-saving putt at the par-3 fifth, where barely 100 spectators had made the long trek out to the furthest point from the clubhouse on a hot and steamy day. I'm really confident with my bunker shot right now. We send videos and that, but there's something about in person that he seems to get a pretty good gist of what's going on even on the golf course.
Inbee Park, who now tops the world rankings, was the ninth player to finish under par, with England's Charley Hull and 2014 US Open champion Michelle Wie closing on level par for the week.
Second-placed Ariya said she was paying little attention to her position, instead just focusing on her own form. Only after the putt on 15 did she realize she had a chance to come back.